Update from December: We’ve added to this post to include more events through the rest of 2020.
While the freedom to protest is not mentioned specifically in the First Amendment, the right to voice dissent is a long-standing American tradition, and protest became an officially recognized form of assembly by the US Supreme Court in their 1969 ruling in Shuttlesworth v. Birmingham.
The state of the country in 2020 has underscored the importance of Americans living their First Amendment freedoms. From the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic, an unhindered free press has proved vital in publishing information on how Americans can stay safe and healthy. People have also exercised their right to peaceably assemble, with many “Reopen” protests spreading throughout the country in response to state-mandated shutdowns.
The five freedoms of the First Amendment work in concert to empower change. They protect our freedom to believe in new ideas, to vocalize those ideas, to explain or defend those ideas in the press, to assemble in support of those ideas, and to officially petition the government to legislate in favor of those ideas. When embraced simultaneously by enough people, they create a movement.
George Floyd’s death on May 25, 2020 has brought about a massive wave of protest against racial injustice, the likes of which were last witnessed half a century ago when cities around the nation erupted in response to the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
In the following months, Black Lives Matter protests occurred in every state of the Union, ranging from hundreds of thousands of people in large cities to single individuals on rural street corners. In fact, this movement encouraged people around the world to stand in solidarity with Americans seeking to build a more just society, and thousands upon thousands of people have come together in peaceful gatherings, vigils, marches, and speeches to protest racism.
By utilizing internet and social media technologies, Black Lives Matter organizers reached more people, planned more assemblies, and gathered more signatures than ever before. For instance, in less than a month of its creation, more than 18 million people signed the “Justice for George Floyd” petition. Online petitions enabled calls for action to reach a wider audience at lightning speed, and, when combined with assembled multitudes demanding change, resulted in heightened levels of civic and social pressure.
We witnessed infringements on the First Amendment, too. According to the Press Freedom Tracker, in 2020, there were nearly 1,000 reported incidents of aggression against the press, including denial of access, equipment damage, physical attacks, and 120 arrests. There have also been clear violations of the freedom to peaceably assemble, with peaceful protesters across the nation having been attacked with tear gas and rubber bullets.
Any time an individual and/or a community is marginalized, silenced, alienated, or excluded, there is a First Amendment issue at stake, because we should all have equal access to our First Amendment rights. Those rights give us a voice to stand against injustice, and they give us the power to change it. They allow us to have dreams for the future of our country, and to turn those dreams into realities.
In 2020, we have witnessed how Americans create change by exercising their First Amendment freedoms. If you are planning on exercising your Constitutional right to peaceably assemble, below are some resources to help you to stay safe from a health perspective, and protected, from a legal perspective:
Resource for Protesting Safely during COVID-19 pandemic
Resource for Knowing Your Legal Rights During a Protest
At the First Amendment Museum, where we inspire people to live their freedoms, we celebrate the fact that so many people have been exercising their rights!
The events since late May have showcased the power of protest; more specifically, how mass action by the people has brought pressure to bear on individuals, organizations, communities, and local governments to act on events they would have previously down-played or ignored, and to enact changes at a swifter pace than anticipated, both of which reflect a broader cultural shift that demands racial equality and justice.
After the video of George Floyd’s murder is widely circulated on social media, protests begin in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where George Floyd was murdered.
Protests spread to cities across the nation. In Louisville, protestors focus on the recent death of local Breonna Taylor who was shot in her bed by police on March 13.
Minnesota AFL-CIO calls for the resignation of Bob Kroll, the president of the Minneapolis police union
Former Mayor Frank Rizzo statue removed in Philadelphia, PA
6 police officers charged for using excessive force and violence against residents and protestors in Atlanta, GA
Confederate statue removed in Alexandria, Virginia and Robert E. Lee statue removed in Fort Myers, FL
Civil rights investigation of Minneapolis Police Department launched by the Minnesota Department of Human Rights
Two Buffalo police officers are charged with second-degree assault after pushing a 75-year-old protestor to the ground and injuring him.
A number of elected officials in California and in New York are turning away campaign money donated from police unions.
Activists create a publicly shared spreadsheet which lists hundreds of instances of police brutality against protestors throughout the nation
Democrats in Congress announce the Justice in Policing Act, which would introduce a sweeping overhaul of police procedures and accountability
New York City announces it will cut an undetermined amount of NYPD funding which would then be redirected to social services in the city
Slave auction block was removed by the city of Fredericksburg, VA after two years of deliberation in city council
NASCAR bans Confederate flags from all races and events
After a statue of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy, was torn down by protestors in Richmond, VA, the mayor will introduce an ordinance on July 1 to remove all Confederate statues throughout the city
George Floyd’s brother Philonise Floyd called for police accountability and reform in his testimony before the House Judiciary Committee
Microsoft announces a moratorium on its sale of facial recognition software to law enforcement
More than 1,000 current and former professional athletes have signed a letter to Congress calling for the end of qualified immunity, a legal doctrine which shields law enforcement officers from accountability
Iowa GOP Governor to sign executive order restoring felony voting rights, undoing policy that currently restricts more than 60,000 residents, and close to 10% of the state’s African American population from voting
Virginia Governor proposes Juneteenth – the commemoration of the end of slavery on June 19, 1865 – a state holiday
South Carolina Republican Sen. Tim Scott and Majority Leader Mitch McConnell unveil the Senate GOP’s police reform bill.
Portland, Oregon based Wall of Moms and Don’t Shoot groups file a federal lawsuit against the Department of Homeland Security, arguing federal officers are violating their free speech and using excessive force
Mayors from Seattle, Chicago, Washington D.C., Albuquerque, and Kansas City issue a joint letter to Congressional leaders demanding that they enact legislation that restricts federal agents coming into their cities to handle protests
Minneapolis police issue a statement that the man seen smashing windows, helping to turn peaceful protests into violent riots, was a white supremacist agent provacateur
Attorney General William Barr defends the use of force with federal enforcement while testifying before the House Judiciary Committee
A poll conducted by Gallup is released, finding that nearly two-thirds of Americans support the racial justice protests
Berkeley, CA city council announces proposal to city’s municipal code around curfews, making it harder for the city to impose a curfew if it directly targets protests or activities protected under the First Amendment
Following the shooting of Jacob Blake, the Milwaukee Bucks stage a walkout protest during the NBA playoffs, eventually leading to postponements within the rest of the NBA, the WNBA, Major League Baseball, tennis, and Major League Soccer.
The first Black National Convention is held virtually by the Black Lives Matter movement, in order to adopt a political agenda calling for slavery reparations, universal basic income, environmental justice, and legislation that entirely re-imagines criminal justice reform.
Tens of thousands of people gathered for the March on Washington 2020, on the 57th anniversary of the historic March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, to continue rallying for social justice issues and demanding racial equality. Speeches were made from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial followed by a march to the MLK, Jr. Memorial.
A billboard depicting the death of George Floyd went up in Times Square, placed there by a group called the George Floyd Justice Billboard Committee that hopes to expand with more billboards across the country.
An Oregon state commission has unanimously voted to ban Confederate flags from the state’s historic cemeteries.
Minneapolis teen receives prestigious award for courage for recording George Floyd video.
The United States Olympic and Paralympic Committee announced it would no longer punish athletes who participate in peaceful protests putting itself in direct conflict with the longstanding policy of the International Olympic Committee.
Protests are held in Columbus, OH in response to the police killing of 47-year old Andre Hill.